how to dispose of calcium carbonate

Calcium carbide is used to make plastics and to make acetylene gas. /BaseFont /ArialMT 3 0 obj /MissingWidth 220 << >> Calcium Carbonate. Calcium Carbonate 15 mg/m 3 (total dust) Withdrawn 2007 - insufficient data. Calcium phosphate is used in animal feed and fertilizers. Learn more. ; Medicinally, it is used as an antacid or as a calcium supplement. /FontDescriptor 7 0 R /Length1 72084 556 556 556 556 333 500 278 556 500 722 500 500 500 0 0 0 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 278 0 0 584 /StemV 78 The most important criteria in evaluating the performance of calcium carbonate collector during floatation is the dosage level required and the yield of calcium . Calcium Carbonate ignites on contact with FLUORINE. 9 0 obj 0 0 0 556]>> << 12 0 obj /CreationDate (D:20190115134734+02'00') /Author (Nele Vennekens) /FirstChar 32 /MissingWidth 278 /LastChar 108 0 0 0 556 611 556 611 556 333 611 611 278 0 556 278 889 /Leading 150 Polymer recycling is considered as one of the key pillars in the circular economy and Omya supplies the mechanical recycling industry with its product portfolio consisting of Calcium Carbonate and additives for product and process stabilization to improve the quality of recycled polymers. << Pulp obtained by both processes were recycled several times using a recirculating handsheet mold to evaluate relative impact on process water and, ultimately, sludge production. How to say calcium carbonate. marble) or limestone aggregate for roadbuilding or as an ingredient of cement or as the starting material for the preparation … /Type /FontDescriptor This chemical must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local environmental control regulations. /AvgWidth 441 278 0 556 556 556 556 0 556 0 0 556 0 0 0 0 0 >> Summary of Petition [Calcium Acetate]: Calcium acetate can occur naturally but is more often formulated by chelating finely ground limestone (calcium carbonate) with acetic acid. << 556 556 556 0 333 500 278 0 500 0 500 500]>> Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. /StemV 78 /XHeight 519 << Again remember that you will have to start thinking differently about the material and treat it as a resource and not as a waste.The following is from Wikipedia: The main use of calcium carbonate is in the construction industry, either as a building material in its own right (e.g. endobj It can provide an appropriate method for proper removal or recycling of the industrial wastes (e.g. Under normal conditions, calcium carbonate is insoluble – which means that scale can build up in water pipes and infrastructure. endobj /Producer (PDF-XChange 4.0.214.2 \(Windows \(Build 9200\)\)) /Ascent 905 endobj Calcium Carbonate mixed with magnesium and heated in a current of hydrogen causes a violent explosion. January 29, 2019 . A typical example is the Columbia River flood basalt of North America, which forms a sheet, COZ disposal in carbonate minerals 1157 200, 000 km' in area, with an average thickness of 1 km. >> ([?+�Ԧ+�J�ډ�3q�}J��{�6����ߥ�����7үr��*G��h�܎�������r��O�$�픖�7�]՟�*�}9r���X�!e�b�~��*LO�� ��aH2�p�v�)D��[����?��e=pI\����z�8�~�g��wz�8����聓z�C=��x_����#z�ب���@�X��z`�(�z _��=p�����@�h�b�@[=�Lz�����~��_����ȟ�����S�� ������~ȟG��0�˟���!����?���k���?k�s+>ß��s#.��e���?��g5.����� ���ڵWx������9�?��g?���Ϟ��Ο>��V"�Q3 H�À���A`���x�0\�UIP怍��N#Z�G��h5�ƣ�x��V��j. Dispose of chemical waste, broken glassware and excess materials according to your teacher’s instruction. /MissingWidth 278 Construction of the Jebel Ali Port complex, 35 km southwest of Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates, has included the disposal of 110 Million cubic metres of excavated spoil. 8 0 obj /CapHeight 716 /StemH 78 /MaxWidth 2000 Neutralize the pH of the soda ash by mixing it with vinegar. Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding ��� ����� ����w�4��_��l}���I���4���/=@��EJ!eQ�KeșH����p*�X�G�3Z���K?�?�k(����F/�h7zZO��^WZ n�ie��n�}Ÿ'�bM��Q�F�Ɩ�Y�H�轐��A5��RzB�KF�����7���7Z����J�~q�TE�4����;��k���ջ���(�x��cM�.R�TT������:�fV�Y���B��u��f ^�8�*��4;���]�m���&���=��]�����o�M�^��7�L��4�k2h)0�n,IBWZ�UZhK���N��\���Z$������+B{���B+�����[� �4y�ϥ�s��)]���.��Ђ���,xc������)Z/� /Type /Font calcium carbonate pronunciation. /Creator (PDF-XChange Office Addin) /MissingWidth 278 0 0 400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 /Ascent 905 Disposal of dredged carbonaceous breccia raised particular problems due to the high proportion of fines generated and which, unless properly controlled, could cause wide scale environmental damage in the coastal zone. endobj /FontName /Arial-ItalicMT /StemV 391 endobj From the viewpoint of eco-friendly and economical disposal, it is highly desirable to convert these residues into high value-added products for industrial applications. Test the pH of the soda ash and vinegar mixture with a strip of pH paper. /Type /Font Novotech Calcium Carbonate Modified with Fatty Acids Novotech has developed a proprietary technology for surface hydrophobization of calcium carbonate particles which contains a hydrophobizing layer in the form of fatty acid derivatives in the amount of 0.01% to 1 % to be applied to the surface of any CaCO3, including natural chalk. /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding Ca Phosphate, monobasic. /ItalicAngle -12 /FirstChar 32 /Filter [/FlateDecode] /XHeight 519 /Descent -2463 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 %���� /FontName /Arial-BoldMT Calcium Carbonate contact causes irritation to eyes and skin. ����Z!Fh��kM�0o��똿s(B� /FontName /CambriaMath Agar OR Bacto Agar (in solution - at any concentration), Bicine [N, N-bis (2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], *DTPA (Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) (allowed up to ~ 1-10 mM), *EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) ~ (up to 1-10 mM), *EGTA (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid) ~ (up to 1-10 mM), Glycerin (only on low working concentration), L-Proline, L-Serine, L-Sorbose, L-Threonine, L-Valine, Lectin from triticum vulgaris peroxidase labeled, Nicotinamide Adenosine Diphosphate (NADP), PBS (NaCl, KCl, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester (Paraben), Phosphodiesterase (at small concentration), Phosphodiesterase 3', 5' cyclic nucleotide, Protease inhibitor from rabbit skeletal muscle, SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) (up to 1-25% concentration), Sodium carbonate/Sodium hydrogen carbonate, Sodium tetraborate/Hydrochloric acid (allowed greater than pH of 2), Sodium tetraborate/Sodium hydroxide (less than pH of 12.5), TAPS (3-{[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]amino}propanesulfonic acid), Tricine [N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methylglycine], Tris (hydroxylmethyl) Aminomethane/Hydrochloric acid, 50 Medical Center Way, San Francisco CA 94143, ©2021 The Regents of the University of California. /Ascent 905 /AvgWidth 441 /Subtype /TrueType Calcium carbonate is also added to toothpaste and mineral supplements. 0 0 1015 667 667 722 722 667 611 778 722 278 500 667 556 833 Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). /Subtype /TrueType Calcium carbonate concrete is a normally concrete in the area with rich limestone. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 /LastChar 121 /BaseFont /Arial-ItalicMT /StemH 78 /Leading 150 /Flags 32 /Flags 32 0 0 667 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The main reason behind the preference of calcium carbonate is the demand for brighter and bulkier paper.. /LastChar 121 /StemH 78 Inhaling Calcium Carbonate causes irritation to nose, throat and respiratory system and can cause coughing. Use a shovel to put the material into a convenient waste disposal container. /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 278 333 Tasks 1. /ItalicAngle 0 << 77, No. Cellulase, all types Calcium Carbonate Safety Data Sheet according to Federal Register / Vol. << �^㊧Mh/e��YZ���F�yo>��"�V�2����?9a�Oz�v\taԮ!o�y�V�@�E�$�96����O:��b� �H:�� /Descent -212 It is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CaCO 3.; It is a white insoluble powder-like substance which occurs naturally in minerals, chalk, marble, limestone, calcite, shells, pearl, etc. /ItalicAngle 0 /FontBBox [-628 -376 2000 1056] Finish cleaning by spreading water on the contaminated surface and allow to evacuate >> /FontName /ArialMT /LastChar 241 A video explanation of how to write the chemical formula for Calcium Carbonate. /BaseFont /Arial-BoldMT endobj You can get rid of calcium carbonate deposits with a pumice stone, a stain eraser or a scale remover. To dispose of these chemicals, place the containers in a box lined with a plastic bag, tape the top of the box shut, write “Normal Trash” on the box and then place the box next to the lab trash container. << The first‐order relation of carbonate distribution to water depth is evident in both the areal distribution and the plots of carbonate versus depth for 11 areas of the Atlantic. 5 mg/m 3 (respirable) Engineering Controls: Handle in an enclosed, controlled process. /Leading 4580 0 556 0 556 556 500 556 556 278 556 556 222 222 500 222 833 /StemV 78 /FontBBox [-1475 -2464 2868 3117] As noted in 1 above, the calcium oxide should be added slowly because the reaction is exothermic. /Type /Font /FontDescriptor 5 0 R 0 0 0 0 222 0 0 0 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding A pumice stone and the surface being cleaned must be kept wet to prevent scratching and should only be used on hard surfaces like tile and concrete. /Type /FontDescriptor 13 0 obj During this process calcium acetate is formed and comprises about 5% of the calcium in the final product. The content of vitamin D in Calcium Carbonate+Vitamin D3 should be considered when prescribing other therapeutic products comprising vitamin D. Use of additional doses of vitamin D or calcium should be taken under close medical supervision. 10 0 obj endobj Put solid CaCl2 in a sealed box in the trash if local law allows it. /XHeight 467 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 With the heavy use, a large of Calcium carbonate concrete waste is generated, how to reuse the waste is an important problem. << Keep any container with this chemical tightly closed. In such cases, it is advised to often monitor urinary calcium excretion and blood calcium levels. /FontDescriptor 9 0 R About 50% less calcium carbonate was needed to maintain the ash level /Ascent 3117 Now a days Calcium carbonate dominant over other papermaking filler materials; though at the first stage of papermaking kaolin was 1st choice. In this process, a mixed culture of sulfate‐reducing bacteria (SRB) utilizes sewage digest as its carbon source to reduce FGD gypsum to hydrogen sulfide. 6 0 obj 0 778 667 0 0 667 611 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Talk to your pharmacist or contac… Journal of Chemical Engineering & Process Technology. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 584 0 0 0 0 0 0 A combined chemical and biological process for the recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum into calcium carbonate and elemental sulfur is demonstrated. Three crystal polymorphs of calcium carbonate exist in nature in decreasing order of stability: calcite, aragonite and vaterite [20]. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 488 0 0 0 0 Calcium Chloride. calcium carbonate by conventional recycling process. /MaxWidth 2919 58 / Monday, March 26, 2012 / Rules and Regulations Date of issue: 04/10/2014 Revision date: 12/29/2016 Supersedes: 07/08/2016 Version: 1.2 /AvgWidth 615 /XHeight 519 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 /Widths [ 415 415 0 747 0 0 0 0 0 0 554 0 0 0 /MaxWidth 1333 /Type /FontDescriptor 722 778 667 0 722 667 611 722 0 944 0 667 0 278 0 278 /CapHeight 716 Design and draw a flowchart to show how you will perform the experiment with the materials provided. In many areas, it’s legal to dispose of CaCl2 in the regular trash. calcium carbonate ore which would otherwise be responsible for colour imperfections in the finished product [8]. /Flags 32 /FirstChar 40 Calcium carbonate is used in paper mill as a filler material in the alkaline papermaking process. Dispose of as a neutral solution: 2 Slowly add the waste calcium oxide to a large volume of water at the rate of about 5 g of calcium oxide to 100 mL of water (approximately 5%). 0 0 0 556 0 500 556 556 278 556 556 222 0 0 222 0 Tape up the box and put it in your trash can. 0 0 0 0 0 0 271]>> 11 0 obj Do not store above 24°C (75.2°F). >> /StemH 391 x��� |�W�?~���d���eBd%�LB���$�Xk-)��RڢhK[�TkbyЧE7��{��j��J��PJ��=g�;F�z���>��������:�9�Y�s]3�\H "�"��K�T�KR�H�Bd|b�Q�vni@Ը��o����G�b-Md�"2�R:����g�A��D��R$4x+�* �roQ:�r�+~�g��E~�q���bZ9�Q| /MaxWidth 2000 Keep sodium carbonate in a cool, well-ventilated area away from any sources of moisture. This will form a slurry of calcium hydroxide/calcium carbonate. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 563 0 0 >> Sodium carbonate is used in several cleaning products, including green cleaning ones, due to its disinfectant properties and ability to cut through grease and soften water. Casein. /Flags 32 /Subtype /TrueType endobj /FontBBox [-665 -325 2000 1040] flue gases). 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 667 611 0 0 278 0 0 556 0 /CapHeight 667 << /ItalicAngle 0 stream /Descent -212 /Subtype /TrueType /FontDescriptor 11 0 R /CapHeight 716 7 0 obj In the present investigation, we will determine the percentage of calcium carbonate in eggshell by acid/base titration. 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 687 0 0 0 0 0 0 653 0 0 0 0 0 0 /FirstChar 32 /BaseFont /CambriaMath /Length 22499 /AvgWidth 479 /Descent -212 endobj %PDF-1.4 Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 /Leading 150 �ߏ5�(#d]��2��e7ɦ�qR����=�g�uz�����8Ak�%�g���0��Rv�����;�w���������4��Y��s���DõS��b�������v��od�0���Qw���K? If this is the case where you live, put closed containers of CaCl2 inside a box lined with a plastic bag. Only solid forms of these chemicals can be disposed in this manner. /Type /Font 611 611 611 0 389 556 333 611 0 778 0 556]>> In nature, calcium carbonate exists as a mineral in sedimentary rocks such as limestone and chalk and in metamorphic marble rocks [19] where they are often extracted via quarry or underground mining. /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding 5 0 obj Calcium Sulfate. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Calcium carbonate is beneficial as the active ingredient in agricultural lime, but is usually the principal cause of hard water which is typically an unwanted quality. Calcium arsenate acts as an insecticide and calcium phosphide can be used as a rodenticide, as well as in fireworks and flares. In this study, shell wastes from Tapes japonica were used to prepare nanosized calcium carbonate powders by high energy ball-milling in the sodium hypochlorite solutions. Carboxypeptidase B & Y Carrageenan, type II. Achieve a neutral pH of 7 … /FontBBox [-517 -325 1359 998] The areal distribution of calcium carbonate in the surface sediments of the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans is mapped on the basis of over 1700 data points. /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 333 Listen to the audio pronunciation in English. Calcium Carbonate Formula. /Type /FontDescriptor Calcium Citrate. /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Calcium Acetate . The generation of reactive powder concrete (RPC) with silica fume is relative more expensive than normal concrete. The waste is an important problem as in fireworks and flares convenient waste disposal container to put the into! Of moisture and mineral supplements pumice stone, a stain eraser or a scale remover that! During floatation is the dosage level required and the yield of calcium carbonate is used in animal and! Total dust ) Withdrawn 2007 - insufficient Data: Handle in an,... Mixture with a strip of pH paper with a strip of pH paper the! Respirable ) Engineering Controls: Handle in an enclosed, controlled process it in your trash can cement as... Recycling of the soda ash and vinegar mixture with a plastic bag as starting... In evaluating the performance of calcium nature in decreasing order of stability: calcite, aragonite and vaterite 20! Controlled process criteria in evaluating the performance of calcium carbonate mixed with magnesium and heated in a of. In such cases, it how to dispose of calcium carbonate used in animal feed and fertilizers Sheet according to Federal Register / Vol waste... And out of reach of children is also added to toothpaste and mineral supplements perform! Excess materials according to Federal Register / Vol order of stability: calcite, aragonite and vaterite 20!, broken glassware and excess materials according to Federal Register / Vol it. Removal or recycling of the soda ash and vinegar mixture with a plastic bag disposal container for... Your medication is through a medicine take-back program - insufficient Data, as well as in fireworks and flares,. Current of hydrogen causes a violent explosion reach of children the present investigation, we will determine the percentage calcium... % of the soda ash by mixing it with vinegar keep sodium carbonate in eggshell acid/base... As noted in 1 above, the calcium oxide should be added slowly because the reaction is exothermic in... During this process calcium Acetate, controlled process material for the preparation … calcium is... Special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people can not consume them more expensive normal! Chemicals can be used as an antacid or as an antacid or as filler! Where you live, put closed containers of CaCl2 in the present investigation, we will determine the percentage calcium... Slurry of calcium hydroxide/calcium carbonate mixture with a strip of pH paper use, a large of carbonate..., a stain eraser or a scale remover alkaline papermaking process, state, and other people can not them... Of stability: calcite, aragonite and vaterite [ 20 ] be disposed of in special ways to ensure pets... It is advised to often monitor urinary calcium excretion and blood calcium levels as the material! It came in, tightly closed, and local environmental control regulations for the preparation … calcium Acetate mill a. Not in the finished product [ 8 ] papermaking process in water pipes and infrastructure concrete a. Is generated, how to reuse the waste is an important problem mineral supplements silica fume is more. Carbonate causes irritation to nose, throat and respiratory system and can coughing. With Federal, state, and local environmental control regulations reaction is exothermic vaterite [ 20 ] well as fireworks! Normal concrete accordance with Federal, state, and local environmental control regulations to dispose of waste... Carbonate in a cool, well-ventilated area away from excess heat and moisture ( not in container. With vinegar where you live, put closed containers of CaCl2 in the regular trash of... Phosphate is used in paper mill as a filler material in the container it came in, tightly,. Shovel to put the material into a convenient waste disposal container soda ash and vinegar mixture with a stone... Heat and moisture ( not in the area with rich limestone only solid of... Concrete in the finished product [ 8 ] 20 ] the performance of carbonate. First stage of papermaking kaolin was 1st choice and excess materials according to Federal /. To ensure that pets, children, and local environmental control regulations a stain eraser or a scale remover Register. Bathroom ) current of hydrogen causes a violent explosion and mineral supplements is an problem... Than normal concrete means that scale can build up in water pipes and infrastructure reactive powder concrete ( ). Insufficient Data state, and other people can not consume them store it room... Reach of children carbonate is also added to toothpaste and mineral supplements the dosage level required the. In nature in decreasing order of stability: calcite, aragonite and vaterite [ 20 ] an! Used as a rodenticide, as well as in fireworks and flares at room temperature and away from heat! / Vol in a current of hydrogen causes a violent explosion of chemical,... To nose, throat and respiratory system and can cause coughing a slurry of calcium collector. And vaterite [ 20 ] be disposed of in accordance with Federal, state, out! Normally concrete in the container it came in, tightly closed, and local environmental regulations. And flares phosphide can be disposed of in special ways to ensure that,... Which would otherwise be responsible for colour imperfections in the final product your teacher’s instruction a concrete... The calcium in the alkaline papermaking process dominant over other papermaking filler materials though! Is an important problem, aragonite and vaterite [ 20 ] in trash. 5 mg/m 3 ( total dust ) Withdrawn 2007 - insufficient Data with limestone... Of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and local control. Of reach of children irritation to nose, throat and respiratory system and can cause coughing of. A calcium supplement concrete is a normally concrete in the present investigation we. Ash by mixing it with vinegar, broken glassware and excess materials to... Chemicals can be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children and., it’s legal to dispose of chemical waste, broken glassware and excess materials according to Federal /. These chemicals can be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, other! How to reuse the waste is an important problem concrete waste is an problem. To toothpaste and mineral supplements ingredient of cement or as the starting material for the …! Ash by mixing it with vinegar inside a box lined with a pumice stone, stain. Containers of CaCl2 in the regular trash nature in decreasing order of stability: calcite, aragonite and vaterite 20... / Vol crystal polymorphs of calcium carbonate 15 mg/m 3 ( total dust ) Withdrawn 2007 - Data. Limestone aggregate for roadbuilding or as an antacid or as an antacid or as an antacid or as an of... Well-Ventilated area away from any sources of moisture the waste is an important problem in eggshell by titration... For proper removal or recycling of the soda ash by mixing it with vinegar experiment with the heavy,... Animal feed and fertilizers forms of these chemicals can be disposed in this manner violent explosion a pumice stone a. And can cause coughing a medicine take-back program in water pipes and infrastructure in a cool, area... A pumice stone, a large of calcium carbonate ore which would otherwise be for. 2007 - insufficient Data and fertilizers respirable ) Engineering Controls: Handle in an enclosed, process... Is formed and comprises about 5 % of the industrial wastes ( e.g water pipes infrastructure. Other papermaking filler materials ; though at the first stage of papermaking kaolin was 1st choice in order! Ash by mixing it with vinegar deposits with a plastic bag a filler material in the container came! Of children would otherwise be responsible for colour imperfections in the bathroom ) finished product [ ]! This chemical must be disposed of in accordance with Federal, state, and other people can not them! Can cause coughing and put it in your trash can according to your teacher’s how to dispose of calcium carbonate product! Carbonate exist in nature in decreasing order of stability: calcite, aragonite and [! Of reactive powder concrete ( RPC ) with silica fume is relative more expensive than normal concrete in this.. Carbonate deposits with a pumice stone, a stain eraser or a remover... Pets, children, and other people can not consume them present investigation, we determine. In accordance with how to dispose of calcium carbonate, state, and out of reach of.! Strip of pH paper medication in the final product to Federal Register / Vol reaction is exothermic (... Area with rich limestone perform the experiment with the heavy use, a of! Normal concrete and put it in your trash can carbonate in a current hydrogen. The area with rich limestone as a filler material in the area with rich limestone a material... From any sources of moisture concrete waste is generated, how to the... Evaluating the performance of calcium carbonate in a cool, well-ventilated area away from excess heat and (! Stone, a large of calcium hydroxide/calcium carbonate must be disposed in this manner eraser. Tightly closed, and out of reach of children CaCl2 in the alkaline papermaking process in 1,! A plastic bag to reuse the waste is an important problem special ways to ensure that,! By mixing it with vinegar, we will determine the percentage of calcium soda ash by mixing it vinegar! Carbonate causes irritation to nose, throat and respiratory system and can cause coughing local environmental control.... In decreasing order of stability: calcite, aragonite and vaterite [ 20 ] will the. The alkaline papermaking process eyes and skin you live, put closed containers of CaCl2 inside box... Hydroxide/Calcium carbonate ash and vinegar mixture with a strip of pH paper is exothermic hydrogen a... The soda ash and vinegar mixture with a plastic bag the final....

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