After 30Â days of incubation at room temperature, the proportion of damaged seed and the number of emerged bruchid beetles was determined. The gel was stained with SYBR Gold diluted 10,000-fold in 0.5âÃâTBE buffer for 10Â min. Liu et al. Chromosomes 3 and 4 were merged into one linkage group, while chromosome 5 was split into two linkage groups. endobj  reported three markersâ779, Vr34480 and 34458âto be associated with bruchid resistance in population TC1966âÃâNM92. stream It yielded, in addition to the QTL on chromosome 5, putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 7 and 10 in TC1966âÃâNM92, and QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 10 in V2802âÃâNM94 (Additional file 2: Table S2). It has been found associated with RAPD marker fragment OPW02a4 , which mapped to position 6,743,539 to 6,745,030 of chromosome 5 of the mungbean reference genome. SNPs that could not be transferred to CAPS were converted to dCAPS according to  using the dCAPS finder (http://helix.wustl.edu/dcaps/dcaps.html). Genetics. Xu S. Quantitative trait locus mapping can benefit from segregation distortion. It is used as an ingredient in both savoury and sweet dishes. Genotypes of marker CAPS12 detecting the bruchid resistance allele in populations TC1966âÃâNM92 (a) and V2802âÃâNM94 (b) ordered by resistance in terms of % seed damage. In contrast, markers Mb-87 and OPW02a4 described being associated with bruchid resistance in V2709  and TC1966  mapped 7.75 and 16.09Â cM away from the nearest chromosome 5 QTL-related marker. Nethelands: Kluwer; 1990. p. 209â17. It is consumed as grains or as sprouts, the green pods are eaten as a vegetable, and it is processed into a variety of products such as noodles, sweets or drinks. The largest chromosome numberincrease(n=9ton=20,vian=10? In bruchid resistance tests line NM94 was completely susceptible, with more than 90Â % damaged seed, which suggested that NM94 cannot significantly contribute to the resistance of the F7 families. Development of an interspecific Vigna linkage map between Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Inclusive composite interval mapping using the CAPS markers suggested the strongest association with bruchid resistance at position 7.0Â cM in TC1966âÃâNM92 and at position 1Â cM of V2802âÃâNM94, between markers dCAPS3 and CAPS14. During grain storage, they develop from egg to pupa in a single seed, the larva being the most destructive stage. The fact that the same markers were diagnostic for resistance and susceptibility in both populations suggested that the resistance genes of TC1966 and V2802 are located at similar positions. Pak J Nutr. Screening of cultivated mungbean germplasm at the World Vegetable Center for complete resistance to C. chinensis and C. maculatus yielded two resistant accessions, V2709 and V2802 . By using this website, you agree to our US Patent 6,770,630B2. Removal of the carbohydrate chain by endo-jS-N-acetylglucosaminidase H reduces the apparent MW to 31,000, but does not significantly alter the â¦ The Tassel 5 standalone pipeline was followed as outlined in the manual. Zambre M, Goossens A, Cardona C, Montagu M, Terryn N, Angenon G. A reproducible genetic transformation system for cultivated Phaseolus acutifolius (tepary bean) and its use to assess the role of arcelin in resistance to the Mexican bean weevil. Mungbean is not only grown for seeds but also as forage (fodder for cattle). Theor Appl Genet. The DNA bands were visualized under ultraviolet light and the smear of DNA fragments in the size range between 300 and 500Â bp was cut out from the gel. In TC1966âÃâNM92 (F12) the correct prediction rate of tetra marker 1, 3 and 4 assessing the SNP genotype in putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 7 and 10 amounted to 97, 70 and 80Â % respectively. The Fastq-files of the raw reads were processed in Tassel on an IBMâÃâ3500â4 workstation. (XLSX 18Â kb), Gene content of the reference genome VC1973 in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. # How to Harvest Mung Bean // These pests first infect the grain in the field, at low levels. CASÂ Therefore, selection based on this component traits would results improvement in grain yield of mung bean. Complete bruchid resistance in mungbean has been found in the wild relative V. radiata var. Bruchid beetles are an important storage pest of grain legumes. Google ScholarÂ. Genetic mapping suggested that markers physically mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 and associated with bruchid resistance map in fact to chromosome 5. Appl Ent Zool. Breaking the linkage between bruchid resistance and the small and hard seed phenotype has been demonstrated, but it was found that bruchid resistance in TC1966 is linked in the repulsion phase to an important resistance gene against Mungbean yellow mosaic virus derived from line NM92 . It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. Bruchids may develop resistance against the chemicals over time. The LOD for the seed damage and emerging bruchid number QTLs were 41.2 and 52.9 and the % variation was 74.8 and 82.9Â %, respectively; the additive effect was â27.0Â % seed damage and â8.41 emerging bruchid beetles. Kang et al. Markers 779 and Vr34480 were co-segregating with chromosome 5 QTL-related markers and marker 34458 was located in gene Vr5g03830.1 , which was positioned in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. The marker mainly failed to correctly detect 100Â % resistant and susceptible genotypes and thus seemed to modulate resistance in intermediate phenotypes. YJY, YMR and NR developed the segregating populations, RS provided bruchid resistance data, CSH, TCW and HSM made the GBS libraries, HSM, CCY, SR, TCW, KB and WDC performed the bioinformatics analysis, TGB and SR designed the PCR-based markers, HSM, LCY and YJY performed the marker assays, and SR drafted the manuscript. BLACKGRAM (URDBEAN) Botanical name: Phaseolus mungo L. Family: Fabaceae (Leguminoceae) Chromosome number: 2n=22 or 24. The markers associated with the QTL identified on genetic maps of both populations also contained markers physically mapping to other chromosomes of the VC1973 reference sequence. For V2802 the pedigree is unknown, and TC1966 V. radiata var. Plant Breed Biotechnol.  reported one major and two minor QTLs. Alignment of marker MB-87 to the reference sequence was ambiguous, probably because the markers were derived from a different Vigna species and partial sequence similarity with V. radiata may have led to amplification of different fragments than suggested by sequence similarity analysis with the mungbean reference genome. 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei, 115, Taiwan, Horticulture and Landscape Architecture / Horticulture Section, Experimental Farm, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture National Taiwan University, No. PubMedÂ Kollarova K, Vatehov Z, Slovakova L, Liskova D. Interaction of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides with auxin in mungbean primary root. There have been reports of SSR identification in mung bean (Gwag et al. In: Fujii K, Gatehouse AMR, Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Yoshida T, editors. Neff MM, Neff JD, Chory J, Pepper AE. , consisted of 11 linkage groups. statement and The most recent map, reported by Isemura et al. CASÂ Mung bean nuclease has an estimated MW of 39,000 and calculated 334 amino acid residues (1).It is a glycoprotein and has a 29% carbohydrate content. Bruchid resistance in legumes relies on morphological barriers preventing colonization of the seed by bruchid larvae, or on secondary metabolites and other possibly toxic compounds interfering with bruchid growth, development or reproduction . 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 3. The marker order of the genetic map differed strongly from the order according to the physical map, probably due to the small population size, but possibly also due to rearrangements in the TC1966 and NM92 genomes relative to the sequenced line VC1973. Nevertheless, the number of bruchid resistant legume crop varieties available to farmers remains very small , and, to our knowledge, Jangan is the only released bruchid-resistant mungbean variety. A SNP marker physically mapping to position 10,830,930 of chromosome 3 and delimiting the chromosome 5 QTL on the genetic map of V2802âÃâNM94 could not be converted to a PCR-based marker. The marker bins flanking and located in the QTL interval contained, in addition to 81 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 87 markers physically mapped to positions 10,421,576 to 12,504,219 of chromosome 3 and 14 markers physically mapped to positions 15,135,409 to 15,429,977 of chromosome 4 of the reference genome. infect mungbean (Vigna radiata) at low levels in the field, multiply during grain storage and can destroy seed stocks in a few months. Furthermore, the results indicate an increase from n = 9 to n = 11 (via n = 10?) 6 0 obj 2016;16(1):1. Effects of bruchid-resistant mungbean meal on growth and blood-biochemical values in mice. Through GBS, 7 SNPs were found in the region of gene Vradi05g03780.1, and 4 of them predicted an amino acid sequence changes in this gene. QTL analysis was done with the IciMapping software using interval and inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps as well as on markers ordered according to their physical map position in the reference sequence of VC1973 . *) The primers for DMB-SSR-158 map 7,000Â bp apart on the VC1973 reference genome sequence. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Legume Breeding, World Vegetable Center South Asia, ICRISAT Campus, Patancheru, 502 324, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, You can also search for this author in 2014; doi:10.1038/ncomms6443). Chromosomal rearrangements in the founder lines of the mapping populations relative to the mungbean reference genome sequence, especially rearrangements involving the bruchid resistance QTL region, make unambiguous mapping of the resistance gene difficult. Markers in or flanking the QTL intervals were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the mapping population. The marker bins located at this QTL contained 51 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 30 to chromosome 4 (position 15,135,409 to 15,572,752) and 7 to chromosome 3 (10,421,576 to 10,579,209) of the reference genome sequence. The DNA quantity and fragment size in the libraries was verified on a bioanalyzer, subsequently the reactions were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 apparatus. Souframanien J, Gupta SK, Gopalakrishna Y. he exception is the Glycine species where most are 2n = 4x = 40 that is due to polyploidy event at the base of the genus followed sublobata)âÃâNM92 (F12) and V2802 (V. radiata)âÃâNM94 (F7). 2005;98(4):1369â73. Selected SNP markers associated with bruchid resistance in V2802âÃâNM94 (F7) and TC1966âÃâNM94 (F12) were converted to CAPS markers using the CAPS designer tool (https://solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl). Usersâ Manual of QTL IciMapping. Ashraf M, Sirinives P, Sadiq MS, Saleem M. AVRDC germplasm, its utilization and development of improved mungbean. Six families with intermediate phenotypes had between 7.5 and 45Â % damaged seed and between 3 and 45 emerging beetles (Fig.Â 1a). volumeÂ 16, ArticleÂ number:Â 159 (2016) Methods currently applied to control the bruchid pest include solar irradiation of the grain, low temperature storage, biological control, or chemical treatment with methyl bromide, carbon disulfide, aluminum phosphide or other substances. In the present experiment, marker OPW02a4 was located about 16Â cM away from the bruchid resistance locus on chromosome 5. Food Chem Toxicol. In all other families marker CAPS12 correctly predicts resistance or susceptibility. The genotyping by sequencing (GBS) technology is highly efficient for producing large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for virtually any organism . Fulton TM, Chunwongse J, Tanksley SD. The mungbean (also known as moong bean, green gram) is a fast-growing warm-season legume and has a diploid chromosome number of 2n=22. BMC Plant Biology A chromosome number of four was confirmed by cytological ... Macroconidia were produced in 40 ml mung bean broth in a 100-ml Erlenmeyer flask inoculated separately with both parental strains followed by shaking on a rotary shaker for 3â4 days at 20°â25°. In addition to QTLs obtained from inclusive composite interval mapping, also resistance QTL loci detected by interval mapping were verified. Chen et al. /Subtype /Image These high protein, 21-28% beans are also rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and other vitamins. Postal 6â641, 06600 Mexico, D.F., Mexico. It belongs to leguminosae family and diploid chromosome number (2n=22) with 600 Mb genome size. In V2802 Ã NM94 16 markers spanned 3.4Â cM and the marker order between genetic and physical map was less different than for TC1966 Ã NM92, but here as well markers of chromosomes 3 and 4 clustered with markers on chromosome 5. 24. When resistance is based on a single gene, it should segregate in a 1:3 ratio in the F2 generation and intermediate phenotypes should be absent in highly homozygote F7 and F12 families. Host resistance to bruchids would be the most sustainable way to control the pest. 2007;157(1â2):113â22. 2015;76:80â5. Development of a molecular marker for a bruchid (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) resistance gene in mungbean. For population TC1966 Ã NM92, 56,154,121 sequencing reads, each 101Â bp long, were obtained and 48,105,477 reads with the barcode followed by the restriction site remnant and no ambiguous base in the first 64Â bp were mapped to 258,151 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome . Wang J, Li H, L Zhang, Meng L. 2014. Bruchids and legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human beings. Genetics and breeding for bruchid resistance in Asiatic Vigna species. Markers linked to bruchid resistance of TC1966 and V2709 have been identified by [12, 13, 21]. 7,460 of the SNPs were aligned to the 11 chromosomes of mungbean, and 1,822 aligned to scaffold sequences that could not yet be integrated into chromosomes of the reference genome. AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism; CAPS, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences; cM, centimorgan; dCAPS, derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences; GBS, genotyping-by-sequencing; I, inner primer; LOD, logarithm of odds; O, outer primer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; QTL, quantitative trait locus; RIL, recombinant inbred line; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; sp., species; TBE, tris-borate-EDTA; var., variety.
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